3/2017

Series: Nouă
Year of publication: 2017
Publishing house: Andreiana, Sibiu
ISSN: 1222-9695
ISSN Online: 2069-8895

Maximus Confessor und der monenergetisch-monotheletische Streit
- Prof. i.R. Dr. Heinz Ohme*

Typically the theological work of St. Maximus the Confessor is presented as a model of reactivating the prophetic vocation within the Church, but all the canonical implications of his attitude are not researched. This study analyses more precisely the intransigence of St. Maximus in relation to the Monothelite controversy and the fondness of his own beliefs, formulated rather as theologoumenon and not as dogma.

Keywords: - St. Maximus the Confessor, Monothelite controversy, Ekthesis, Typos, dogma, theologoumenon

Dr. Theol. Heinz Ohme, Professor im Ruhestand, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Deutschland.
Address : - Berlin, Deutschland
E-mail : -
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Causes of the Protestant Reformation and the Concept of Freedom viewed by the Great Reformers: Martin Luther, Jean Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli. An Orthodox Vision
- Fr. Dr. Mihai Iordache

The goal of this study is to objectively investigate the real causes of the Protestant Reformation`s breakout in the West, and to discover the importance of freedom in the great reformers thinking, such as Martin Luther, Jean Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli. What are the consequences of this theological and social desideratum in their revolting and organizing action and to what extent the theological thinking and the entire Western culture are tributary to the thinking of these „new road openers”? The present text also tries to outline an exercise of freedom and to analyse this concept in the context of the Protestant Reformation, its causes and its effects. How and in what ways was possible for the great reformers of the sixteenth century to appear? What are the premises of their thoughts and orientations, and what are the specific characteristics of their respective theology? What are the implications and what role has the notion of freedom played in their work and, above all, in their respective activity?
Keywords: - Protestant Reformation, Protestant Church, freedom, faith.
Revd. PhD MihaI Iordache, priest of the “Olari” Church, Bucharest, Romania.
Address : - Bucharest, Romania
E-mail : - bisericaolari@gmail.com
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Vater Ioan Vladovici – ein Leben im Auftrag der Nächstenliebe
- Pfr. Dr. Ionuţ Dragoş Manu

Im vorliegenden Text wollen wir die biografischen Besonderheiten von Vater Ioan Vladovici aufzeigen– dem ältesten noch lebenden Priester der Erzdiözese von Sibiu (Hermannstadt) und sehr wahrscheinlich auch der ganzen Metropolie von Transsilvanien, so wie sie sich aus den Dokumenten des C.N.S.A.S. (Nationalrat zum Studium der Securitate Archive) Archives und aus den mit ihm geführten Interviews ergeben. Das Ziel ist es, eine – so weit wie möglich – gut dokumentierte und umfassende Biografie eines griechisch-katholisch geweihten und später orthodox gewordenen Priesters ans Licht zu bringen.

Schlüsselwörter (Keywords): - der Kommunismus; die Sicherheitsüberwachung; die Verhaftung; politische Häftlinge; repressive Maßnahmen; das Leben des Pfarrers Ioan Vladovici im Gefängnis.
Pfr. Dr. Ionuţ Dragoş Manu, Rumänisch-Orthodoxen Kirche Berlin, Deutschland.
Address : - Berlin, Deutschland
E-mail : -
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Ehe, Ehescheidung und Wiederehe in der Orthodoxen Kirche
- Pfr. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Irimie Marga

Der Mensch, in seiner Vollendung, kann man nicht alleine verstehen, sondern nur „zusammen”. Aus diesem konstitutiven „Zusammen-sein” ist die Familie entstanden, als primäre und inalienabel Verwirklichung der Kommunion. Die kleine Kirche, die Familie, gründet sich durch ein Herabkommen des Heiligen Geistes auch, nähmlich durch das Ehesakrament, deshalb kann man das Ehesakrament als „kleines Pfingsten” in „ecclesia minor” nennen. Wir bekennen, dass die Kirche eine, heilige, katholische und apostolische Kirche ist. So verstehen wir auch die kleine Kirche, die Familie. Die Orthodoxe Kirche lehrt, dass die Ehe ein unauflösbares Sakrament ist. Die Unauflösigkeit der Ehe ist praktisch keine Tatsache, die schon durch das Sakrament verwirklicht ist, sondern eine Eigenschaft, die das ganze Leben bewahrt und erfüllt wird. Die Ehescheidung ist eine Sünde und eine Tragödie. Die Ehescheidung gehört unserer Existenz, deshalb kann man sie nicht ignorieren und, leider, nicht verbieten. Durch die Ehescheidung wird die Eheunauflösigkeit nicht annulliert, sondern verlassen. Die Orthodoxe Kirche akzeptiert die Ehescheidung nicht, sie kann die Sünden nicht akzeptieren, aber sie muss die Ehescheidung tolerieren und anerkennen, als eine schmerzhafte, unbestreitbare Wirklichkeit. Gemäss dem Prinzip der Oikonomia (Nachlass) hat die Kirche zwischen zwei unerwünschte Situationen gewählt: entweder die Geschiedenen, als grössten Sündiger, zu ablehnen, oder die Geschiedenen zu tolerieren und ihnen eine neue Chance zu gewähren. Aus diese zwei Varianten hat die Kirche, vom Anfang an, den kleineren Übel gewählt, also die Tolerierung der Wiederheiratung.
Schlüsselwörter (Keywords): - Familie, Kirche, Ehe, Sakrament, Gnade, Liebe, Scheitern, Ehescheidung, Tolerierung, Heil, Wiederheiraten.

Pfr. Dr. Irimie Marga, Professor an der Andrei-Saguna-Orthodoxen-Theologischen-Fakultät der Lucia-Blaga-Universität, Sibiu, Rumänien.
Address : - Sibiu, Rumänien
E-mail : -
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Ontological aspects of sacred time
- Revd. Assist. Prof. Dan Alexandru Streza

The main trait of the festive time is that, in the shared conscience of the community, these practices are firmly believed to date back to an ancient, mythical era. The festive time encompasses a time span of an importance and value that are greater than the daily routine and presupposes the intermission of all common activities in favour of dedicated practices. The ontological perspective of festive, liturgical time refers to the sacred time in humanity’s general perception – Mircea Eliade’s point of view, to the feasts regarding the history of salvation in the Judaic and Christian faiths and to the rites of passage in the cycles of life and the Christian feasts. The Christian liturgical time is both linear and cyclic, which dilated up to the point where it included past, present, and future. Its linearity refers to the historical parameter of time, and its cyclicity is given by the commemoration of certain events from Christ’s life, events that build into the matrix of the liturgical year.
Keywords: - time, liturgics, anthropology, feast, Orthodoxy
Revd. PhD Dan Streza, Assistant Professor at the “Andrei Şaguna” Orthodox Faculty of Theology, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania.
Address : - Sibiu, Romania
E-mail : -
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The Mighty Angel, the Little Book and the Mission of the Prophet (Rev 10)
- Assist. Prof. Daniel Mihoc

The identity of the “mighty angel” of Rev 10, the significance of his actions and the meaning of the little scroll he is bringing to the Prophet John are some of the most difficult problems the interpreter is encountering in the Book of the Apocalypse. Modern scholarship brought a lot of valuable observations on these issues, but reading commentaries one gets the impression that the ‘puzzle’ remains unsolved. Aware of the almost insurmountable problems standing before, in a humble spirit toward the great work of the authors who opened so many paths, and carrying the huge responsibility staying on the shoulders of the Orthodox exegete to interpret the inspired text in the Church and through the Church, the author of this study tries to offer a fresh commentary of this troubling biblical page and to bring a new light on it. A critical analysis of the text in light of St John’s theology, biblical context, Church’s Tradition and contemporary research brings out the fact that the identification of the ‘mighty angel’ with an angelic being, even with a „mighty one”, as the “angel of the Lord” or one of the archangels, is at least incomplete. More support can one find within the text and its context for the Christological interpretation, but unfortunately neither this one does not answer all questions. Probably the best way of dealing with our text would be not to draw attention to the strong points of one path and to minimize the support for another, but rather to bring them together.
Keywords: - Revelation, mighty angel, little book, Jesus Christ, prophet, prophetic ministry
PhD Daniel Mihoc, Assistant Professor at the “Andrei Şaguna” Orthodox Faculty of Theology, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania.
Address : - Sibiu, Romania
E-mail : -
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La pratique de l’économie ecclésiastique à Byzance au Xe siècle
- Maître de conférences Remus Mihai Feraru

Regarding the application of canonic norms, the Church followed two principles: on one hand, akribeia (rigor), which entailed the strict observance and rigorous application of canonic provisions, and on the other hand oikonomia (exception), which consists in the adaptation of canons to the personal circumstances of the penitent, without implying the cancellation of these canons or the infringement of the akribeia. By applying the oikonomia, the Church can diminish the rigor of the canons or even suspend their application if circumstances require it. The principle of oikonomia has been evoked repeatedly in the first half of the Xth century in the context of the conflict between the state and the church who had it as protagonists Emperor Leon VI the Philosopher (886-912) and Nicholas Mystikos, Patriarch of Constantinople (901-907; 912-925). The object of our study is the exposure of the concept about oikonomia of Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos and the way the oikonomia has been applied in the affair of the tetragamia.

Keywords: - canon, oikonomia, Church, the affair of the tetragamia, patriarch Nicholas Mystikos, Emperor Leon VI the Philosopher
Dr. Remus Mihai Feraru, Maître de conférences (titulaire du cours d’Histoire du christianisme) à la Faculté des Lettres, Histoire et Théologie de l᾽Université de l’Ouest, Timisoara;
Address : - Timisoara, Romania
E-mail : - remusferaru@yahoo.fr
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Proclu of Constantinopolului - Laudatio Sancti Ioannis Chrysostomi (CPG 5819)
- Asist. Dr. Dragoş Boicu

The Laudatio to St. John Chrysostom, proclaimed by Proclus, Archbishop of Constantinople, reflects, despite its small dimension, a very delicate reality in Constantinople’s church life: the end of the Johannite Schism, anticipating the bringing of the holy relics of the illustrious bishop back into the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Keywords: - Proclus of Cyzicus, John Chrysostom, Constantinople, Johannite Schism
Dragoş BOICU, Teaching Assistant at the “Andrei Şaguna” Orthodox Faculty of Theology, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania.
Address : - Sibiu, Romania
E-mail : -
Romanian Language

Palm Sunday homily (CPG 5808) and Maundy Thursday (CPG 5809) of Archbishop Proclus of Constantinople - Revd. dr. Radu Gârbacea

According to Maurice Geerard’s catalogue in Clavis Patrum Graecorum, from archbishop Proclus of Constantinople were preserved one sermon on Palm Sunday (CPG 5808) and one on Maundy Thursday (CPG 5809). These two sermons are not known in the Romanian theological space. In this paper I try to highlight the importance of these sermons for the origins of celebration on Palm Sunday and Maundy Thursday, and to propose their first translation into Romanian.
Keywords: - Proclus of Constantinople, homily, Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday
Revd. Radu GÂRBACEA, Associated member of the Research Center for Theology, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania.
Address : - Sibiu, Romania
E-mail : -
Romanian Language