Series: Nouă
Year of publication: 2017
Publishing house: Andreiana, Sibiu
ISSN: 1222-9695
ISSN Online: 2069-8895

The Voluntary Christian Martyrs of Ninth-Century Muslim Córdoba - Archpriest Ilie TABARCIA

The aim of the current study is to understand from a historical point of view the life of the Spanish Christians in the 9th century under the Muslim rule. After the fall of the Visigoth kingdom in Spain, since 711 a new life began for Spanish Christians under the Muslim rule. Due to the Islamic laws governing their country, Christians lost many rights and civil liberties. Under this socio political context, the case of martyrs in the capital Umayad of Córdoba (756-912), reveals itself as a complex phenomenon caused by the oppressive situation in which Christians lived. Their sufferings are depicted in the work of St. Eulogius of Córdoba († 859), Memorialis Sanctorum and continued in the work of his friend Alvaro Paulo, Indiculusluminosus: in defensive servorum tuorum, Domine. Starting with Saint Perfecto’s martyrdom in 850, the accounts of the martyrs of Córdoba ended with the very suffering of St. Eulogius in 859.
Keywords: - Christian martyr, Muslim rule, 9th century, blasphemy, Spain
Father Ilie Tabarcia, is a parish priest in the parish of Saint Paisie of Neamt, for the Romanians in the Spanish town of Collado Villalba, the Dean of Seville, at the diocese of Spain
Location : - Collado Villalba, the Dean of Seville, Spain
E-mail : - ilietabarcea@yahoo.com
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The importance of the canonization of the New Russian martyrs and confessors of the 20th century by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) and its role in restoring Canonical Communion with the Russian Orthodox Church - Drd. Mihail MOTRICALĂ

The history of the Russian Orthodox Church in 20th and 21st Century is a tragic one. This begins with the Bolshevik Revolution, known as one of the biggest fraternal conflicts, causing the martyrdom of thousands of people. The same painful event separated the Russian Orthodoxy into two parts. Therefore the Russian Orthodox diaspora was ruled since 1921 by an Archdiocesan Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) , formed abroad.
For ROCOR, the question of martyrdom following the bloody persecution of the communist regime against its own people has always been of fundamental importance. ROCOR has always considered itself as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church under the leadership of Patriarch Tihon (Bellavin) and has repeatedly called on the West to help the Russian people and stop bloody repressions.
Because ROCOR wished that the martyrdom of thousands of believers would not remain insignificant decided in 1981, under the leadership of the new Primate of ROCOR, Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesenskij) to canonize New Russian martyrs and confessors of the 20th Century. This meant for all Orthodox Russian diaspora a victory of Orthodoxy over the atheist regime in Russia.
Moreover, after the fall of communism and the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the martyr's sacrifice proved to be one of the main points of negotiations throughout the process of restoring Canonical Communion to the Russian Orthodox Church. The Patriarchate of Moscow has canonized the martyrs at the Jubilee Sobor in 2000, which in May 2007 led to the signing of the „Canonical Communion Act„ and thus to the reunification of Russian Orthodoxy.
Keywords: - Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, ROCOR, AES, Moscow Patriarchate, russian orthodox diaspora, Canonical Communion, martyrdom, canonization of New russian martyrs and confessors, communism
Dr. Candidate Mihai MOTRICALĂ is originally from Republic of Moldavia. He studied Orthodox Theology at ”Lucian Blaga” University and historical theology at Humboldt University, Berlin. He submitted a doctoral dissertation on history, development, the process of unification with the Moscow Patriarchate and future perspectives of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia.
Location : - Republic of Moldavia
E-mail : -
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Orthodox Church of Maramureș between Martyrdom and Religious Tolerance - PhD. student Dumitrița Daniela FILIP

This study analyses the history of the Orthodox Church from the region of Maramureș in different political and confessional backgrounds and the martyrdom of its hierarchy, as well as the struggle for the preservation of orthodox faith in periods of religious (in)tolerance.
Keywords: - martyrdom, orthodox church of Maramureș, bishops, orthodox diocese, religious tolerance..
Drd. Dumitrița Daniela FILIP studied Orthodox Theology, Section of Didactic Orthodox Theology- Preservation and Restoration at Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj Napoca, Romania and is presently the coordinator of the museum of the Romanian-Orthodox Dioceze of Maramures and Satmar. She writes a doctoral dissertation on theology and iconographic art in the region of Maramures.
Location : - Maramures, Romania
E-mail : -
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Martyrdoom in Japanese Christianity, with special reference to the persecutions of the Orthodox Church in Japan at its beginnings - PhD candidate Rev. Alexandru Nicodim

This article contents a few references to the beginnings of Christianity in Japan and the first persecutions suffered by Catholic Christians in Japan. It focuses on the challenges and restrictions the Orthodox mission and its first believers suffered in Japan at its beginnings. Orthodox Christians did not suffer in Japan a real persecution, but rather was the victim of prejudices of Japanese related with this new believe. Some Japanese Christians and missionaries were imprisoned, and the mission faced several restrictions and burdens which could not stop the grow of Orthodoxy in this country.
Keywords: - Christianity in Japan; Russian-Orthodox mission in Japan; Persecution of Cjristians in Japan; St. Nicolas Cathedral in Tokyo;
Phd. Candidate Rev. Alexandru NICODIM studied Orthodox Theology in Bucharest and serves presently as Parish priest at St. Nicholas Brosteni Church, Archdiocese of Bucharest. He served between 2008-2013 as Parish priest of the Romanian Parish in Tokyo, Japan and was, at the same time, official representative of the Patriarchate of the Romanian Orthodox Church to the Autonomous Orthodox Church in Japan. He writes a doctoral dissertation on the history, present situation and future perspectives of the Orthodox Church in Japan.
Location : - Bucharest, Romania
E-mail : -
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